The South Carolina Mid-State Beekeepers Association

Subtitle

Beekeeping Tips

More to come. Check back often as we add more beekeeping tips with a focus on the beginning beekeeper.

Painting & Preparing Hives

It is best to paint the outside of your hives, especially new equipment, with a good primer coat followed with two coats of a good quality light-colored paint. A good outdoor latex will work just fine. Do not paint the inside of your hive bodies as this will interfere with moisture movement in the hive. The bees will propolize all parts on the inside.


Used equipment should be scraped on the inside to remove all the old wax and propolis. A propane torch can now be used to lightly scorch the inside of the super (see Used Equipment - Safe to Use?). The outside can be painted if needed.


Bottom boards can be painted, however it would be prudent to only paint those areas on the exterior - not inside the hive. Allow to air-dry forty-eight (48) hours before using.

Hiving Your Bees

Here's an rather long, but excellent, step by step guide to the actual installation of a package of bees.  Long Lane Honey Farm (You may need to scroll down a few paragraphs for the lesson.)

After you read through the above blog by Long Lane Honey Farm watch a couple videos below. You may find some variation in the methods but they will all be similar.
Two videos, because there is always more than one way...

Now that your equipment is built and your bees are installed, here's a timeline to follow:


Day 1: Install package using the method with which you feel most comfortable.
Day 3: Make sure queen is out. Remove cage and push frames together so gap is closed.
Day 7: Make sure queen is laying.
Day 17: Check for brood type. If there are no eggs or only drones, there is a problem.

Feeding Honey Bees

Feeding honey bees is a highly debated topic. Some people recommend against any feeding of sugar syrup. Others feed routinely. When new to bees and obtaining packages or nucleus hives you will have to feed or they will perish. Once established, perhaps in their second year, they may very well have enough stores to no longer need feeding. This sometimes depends on how much honey is removed by the beekeeper but during a poor nectar year you may end up feeding regardless.

Our nectar flow in the Midlands is primarily during the months of April and May. Sometime very early in June the nectar flow stops and the bees will get hungry. But let me back up a bit. You may receive your bees in late March before the nectar flow starts. In that case once you hive your package you should start feeding them a 1:1 sugar syrup (by wt.). This will encourage them to build comb, raise brood, and gain strength. Once April and the nectar flow begins your sugar syrup may not be taken by the bees. (Would you eat at McDonald's if you had the choice of Outback?)  If the bees stop taking your syrup just remove it and let them gather nectar. Don't worry, you'll be feeding them again in June.

Most mentors I have had say to feed your bees freely during their first year. There are some considerations such as feeding to the point of the queen not having a place to lay. Also, you want to start reducing the moisture level within the hive in the fall by using 2:1 mix or using fondant or plain sugar, However, within reason you shouldn't be stingy with feeding your first year. You may find that it's a pleasant activity to walk out to the bees every few days to check on their syrup and sit and watch them for awhile.

Here's a video on how to easily mix 1:1 syrup for feeding newly hived packages and nucleus hives.

How to Light a Smoker

The smoker is the single most important accessory for minimizing stings - even more important than protective clothing. Smoke has the effect of disrupting the bees normal cascade of defense responses they perceive when their nest is being invaded. Smoked bees tend to flee from the source of smoke (the beekeeper) rather than advance in a defensive reaction. The result is less flight and stinging behavior.

In South Carolina it's hard to beat pine straw as a smoker fuel. It's readily available, flammable, and makes a good dense smoke. To properly light a smoker, it's helpful to remember that air is forced into the fire chamber from below, proceeds through the ignited fuel, and exits from the spout at top. This means that the flame should be below the fuel, not above.


To light a smoker, take a handful of pine straw, ignite it, place it in the fire chamber, and puff several times to encourage a brisk flame. Once the pine straw is fully in flames, pack in more pine straw directly on top. Once this layer is ignited, you may cap the smoker. The objective is a cool, dense smoke.


A smoker is used when one initially opens a colony. Proceed as follows: Crack the lid, direct a puff or two inside the hive, briefly recover the lid, then proceed to open the hive. Then direct several puffs of smoke downward between the frames. It is normal for bees to buzz loudly as they flee the smoke. This degree of smoking is frequently sufficient to allow the beekeeper to do most jobs. However, if the bees get testy, give them another few puffs to defuse their defensive behavior.

The Fat Bee Man: "How to Properly Light a Bee Smoker"

Filmed on location at his training yard, the Fat Bee Man and I thought this quick clip would be helpful to a lot of new beekeepers. This video was shot at about 9:15am and at 5:45pm that afternoon the smoker was still smoking.. It was sitting not being used for most of that time but it wasn't being puffed to keep it going either! This method works. -Craig the Southern Maryland Beekeeper

Hive Inspection

Here's a link to a slide show by Linda Tillman illustrating a hive inspection. Designed for beginning beekeepers this is definitely a must watch as you start to inspecting your hives:

 
How to do a hive inspection. This video shows a hive inspection. Probably best for its illustration of questioning everything and attempting to assign a reason for what they see.

Here are links to two hive inspection sheets you can use to begin to remember what you should be hoping to see during an inspection:

Mann Lake Hive Inspection Sheet

Haywood County Beekeepers Check List

Here are some tips shared on our sister Association site,
Wateree Beekeepers

One of our new beekeepers (newbees) has asked that we provide some tips on what folks should or can be doing to manage their new colonies.  Remember when YOU got your first package/s of bees?

I'll start off with a couple of reminders, but I KNOW there are folks in our Association who know a LOT more than I do so hopefully they'll join in and share their knowledge as well OR even correct anything I've said that might not be right!

1.  RESIST the urge to go into your boxes too often.  The "honey flow" may start early this year so the less you disturb your bees, the better off they'll be.

2.  When you DO need to go into the hive (such as to check on whether or not the queen has been released), disturb the hive as little as possible.  For example, you don't need to pull out and inspect every frame right now.

3.  DON'T forget that you need to feed your package bees sugar water (mixed at a 1:1 sugar/water ratio).  You'll probably need to do this for at least a couple of weeks.

4.  Remember, it IS possible, especially when you're first learning, to OVER SMOKE your bees.  Some beekeepers follow the rule of always lighting their smoker but only using it when the bees seem agitated. You don't want to be trying to light your smoker AFTER you're already in an agitated colony. So, go ahead and light it (you can use the practice anyway) but remember...it doesn't take much smoke and using TOO much can actually have the opposite effect from what you're trying to achieve.

Hopefully someone will find at least one of these tips to be helpful.
kcbeekeeper

More Tips!

It is better to place your hives a good distance from the public. Out of sight; out of mind.

When possible, keep them in a sunny place. They like sun and heat.

Bees cannot tolerate cold and the wet at the same time. It is important to keep them dry.

Some areas may require a permit for keeping your bees.  Check your city, town and/or HOA.

At some time, regardless of your protective gear, you will be stung by your bees.  It will hurt.

Tips from Our Facebook Group Members

Don't open the hive on wet, rainy days. The bees will be irritable and sting.


Don't eat a banana before a hive visit. The odor of banana is similar to alarm pheromone which may get the bees defensive.


Always keep plenty of Benedryl on hand.


If your smoker runs out, you can breathe on the bees and -- for a gentle colony -- it'll get them to go down into the super.  IMPORTANT NOTE: key word there was 'gentle'. If it's not a gentle colony, breathing on them will cause them to fly out of the hive and attempt to sting you right on the kisser.


Always wear at least a head net. Even if you're just going to change a feeder or replace an inner cover. Better safe than sorry.  A sting to an arm is one thing but sting to the face is not fun. Cheap mosquito head nets can be purchased at WalMart for a couple dollars. It's good to have a few around.


Be mindful of what you wear while visiting your hives. Bees react to large brown or black objects. Probably a genetically hardwired reaction to bears.


If a bee gets in your bonnet... errr, veil that is: Don't run screaming and flaying about. Your best option is to reach up and, calmly as possible, squish her through the fabric. The bee will fly upward so capitalize on that instinct. It's sad, but a sting to the eye is painful and could be dangerous.


I haven't tried this but one of our members advises that drinking water or other liquids through the screen veil is actually possible. Don't risk dehydration while working in the hot sun. Drink fluids. And if you have your veil on, well try this tip and let us know if it works.


Historically beekeepers smoked pipes while working their bees. Some veils were even made to allow the pipe stem to pass through. Beekeepers would draw on the pipe and blow the tobacco smoke onto the bees as needed. Well, I'm not going to promote or suggest you take up pipe smoking but if you already smoke a pipe give it a try and let us know the results.

Michael Bush's Beekeeping FAQs

After reading Michael Bush's Frequently Asked Questions webpage and being  entertained as well as educated, I thought it would be a good resource for this page. I hope you enjoy it as well. Michael Bush's FAQ

Beekeeping Calendar

This website provides a narrative calendar that helps you know what to look for & expect monthly through out the year. Gives easy to follow advice on what to do during each bee season.

http://www.scstatebeekeepers.org/BeekeepersCalendar

Local Library

Queen Color Codes

Years:
Ending with #1 or #6 (White)

Ending with #2 or #7 (Yellow)

Ending with #3 or #8 (Red) 

Ending with #4 or 9 (Green)

Ending with #5 or #0 (Blue)

Mosquito Control

Contact your local mosquito/vector control office to keep your honey bees as safe as possible during mosquito spraying season.


In Lexington County contact: Lexington County Vector Control Email Mr. David Mitchum at: [email protected]. 803-785-8440.


In Richland County contact: To get on their list call the Ombudsman's Office at (803) 929-6000.


In Batesburg-Leesville contact: Mosquito Control Program at (803) 532-5405


For a list of various Vector Control offices in other areas visit this link:

http://www.scdhec.gov/HomeAndEnvironment/Insects/Mosquitoes/LocalMosquitoControl/

Is Used Equipment Safe?

Some parts of used equipment can be cleaned up with a propane torch and would be fairly safe to use, especially for an experienced beekeeper.


Potential problems lie mainly in the brood chamber where the queen lays her eggs. Most diseases that threaten hive health are brood diseases. One of the worst is American Foulbrood, a spore-producing disease. AFB spores have been found to remain active for over forty years. If spores are present on used equipment, they can multiply and devastate a hive.


Old brood comb can be a problem as well. Each cycle of brood will leave behind a cocoon, thus making the cell progressively smaller and smaller, resulting in each generation of bees becoming smaller until finally a point is reached where the queen refuses to lay eggs in these cells.


Moldy, white-ish pollen, not fit for the bees to use and too hard to remove, can also restrict the area that the queen has to use.


The solution for the new beekeeper for the above problems is to start with new equipment, new frames and new foundation. The investment will more than pay for itself in healthy bees and satisfaction to the beekeeper.

Brood Mapper

If you enjoy interactive learning and would like to learn how to identify stages of brood, pollen, nectar, and other cell componets you may enjoy Broodmapper.com. But before you get started read this article on Broodmapper and Citizen Science.


Broodmapper.com is an interactive site where you can learn to identify different stages of brood development and cell contents. Broodmapper.com is used to determine the cell contents using photographs of combs from experimental colonies.

 Beekeeping Glossary

AbdomenBelly, stomach of insects
AbsondingDeparture from the hive by the entire colony
AdultFully grown.
AlleleOne of a number of the same gene
Anaphylactic ShockA sudden and severe allergic reaction characterized by a sharp drop in blood pressure, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
AntherThe part of the flower that contains pollen
ApiaristA beekeeper
ApiaryA collection of managed bee colonies
ApicultureThe science of beekeeping
Bacillus larvaeThe spore forming bacterium that causes American Foulbrood
BarbsPart of the worker bee's sting which used as anchors.
Bee breadThe mix of pollen and honey eaten by worker bees
Bee brushA tool for gently brushing bees from comb
Bee metamorphosisThe three stages through which a bee passes before reaching maturity: egg, larva and pupa.
Bee plantsPlants that are frequented by bees for nectar and pollen
BeeswaxA substance secreted from glands on the underside of the abdomen of worker bees; used to build comb
Bottom boardThe floor of a beehive
BroodDeveloping bees (eggs, larvae, pupae) 
CapA covering that closes a cell containing pupa or honey
CappingThe thin wax covering on cells full of honey.
CellA single unit of hexagonal comb
ColonyA community having a single queen bee, thousands of worker bees and drones
Colony divisionExiting of a part of a bee colony to form a new hive
CombThe hexagonal structure used to store honey and raise brood
ConiferaeConifer
CrystallizationThe solidification of honey.  Crystals will develop in honey when glucose crystallizes out of solution. Crystallization of honey is most rapid at 57ยบ F.
CupidThe mythological Greek god who dipped his arrows in honey
DanceA series of movements made by a forager bee or a scout bee to communicate the location and type of resource
DiploidDouble chromosomes   (see haploid)
Domestic beeA worker bee in the second stage of its life. It spends its time maintaining the hive.
DroneMale honey bee, developed with diploid genome from unfertilized eggs.
EntomologyThe science of insects
Entrance ReducerDevices to limit the size of the entrance to a hive.
European foulbroodAn infectious disease of honey bees caused by streptococcus pluton.
ExtractorA machine that rotates honeycomb with great speed to remove honey
FeralDomesticated animals that have escaped captivity
Food champagneA hive body filled with honey for winter stores.
Forager beeA worker bee that gathers pollen, nectar, water and/or propolis.
ForagingThe act of gathering pollen and nectar from flowers by worker bees
FoundationA sheet of beeswax with an imprint of the hexagonal design of the comb to encourage bees to build their comb in line with the design
FrameWooden rectangle with a sheet of foundation to support a comb
GenomeThe entirety of an organism's heredity information
GlucoseDextrose
GraftingRemoving a worker larva from its cell and placing it in an artificial queen cup in order to have it reared into a queen.
Grid to separate

A grid through which only worker bees are able to fit.

Guard BeeA worker bee 15 to 20 days old. In this stage, the worker bee's poison glands are developed and the worker guards the hive against enemies
Haemolymph"Blood"-similar substance in the bee organism
HaploidHalf of chromosomes   (see diploid)
HeadThe front section of a body containing insect antennae and other sensory apparatus
HexagonA figure with six sides and six angles
HiveThe home for a bee colony
Hive toolA tool for removing the capping off the comb.
HoneyFood produced by the honey bee 
Honey Bee
 Latin Apis mellifera
Honey stomachAn organ in the abdomen of the honey bee used for carrying nectar, honey, or water.
House beeA young worker bee whose activities are confined to the hive
ImagoAdult animal
Instrumental InseminationThe introduction of drone spermatozoa into the genital organs of a virgin queen by means of special instruments.
Larva(Plural, larvae) - middle stage of a developing bee, uncapped brood
Laying workerA worker which lays infertile eggs, producing only drones, usually in colonies that are hopelessly queenless.
MapleEarly Blooming broad leaved tree 
Mating flightThe flight taken by a virgin queen during which she mates in the air with several drones.
NectarA sweet liquid secreted in flowers and on leaves of plants
Nuc boxA small hive used to start new colonies after splitting a hive.
Nuptial flightsA series of mating excursions made by a young queen
Nurse beeA bee in the first stage of its life. It spends its time feeding brood and maintaining the hive.
OrganismAny life form
Orientation flightsFlights taken by house bees in preparation for becoming foragers
PhenotypeObservable characteristics of an individual
PheromonesChemical substances for communication by smell in the bee hive
PistilA flower's central organ that contains the stigma, style and ovary
PollenMale reproduction unit of plants, essential for the bee
Pollen BasketA smooth area on the hind leg of a bee surrounded by stiff hairs. It is used to carry pollen.
Pollen insertA device inserted into the entrance of a colony into which hand-collected pollen is placed. As the bees leave the hive and pass through the trap, some of the pollen adheres to their bodies and is carried to blossoms, resulting in cross-pollination.
Pollen pattiesA mixture of pollen, honey, and a pollen supplement fed to colonies in early spring.
Pollen substituteAny material, such as soybean flour, powdered skim milk, brewer's yeast, or a mixture of these used in place of pollen to stimulate brood rearing.
PollinationThe transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma of a flower
PollenizerA plant that provides pollen.
Prime swarmThe first swarm to leave the parent colony, usually with the old queen.
Pupa(Plural, pupae) - Final stage of a developing bee, sealed brood
QueenA female bee that lays all the eggs in the colony
Queen cage candyCandy made by kneading powdered sugar with invert sugar syrup until it forms a stiff dough; used as food in queen cages.
Queen cellA special cell used to place an egg that will become a queen.  Queen cells hang vertically.
Queen excluderA device for keeping the queen out of the honey supers
Re-QueeningIntroducing a new queen into a colony.
Rendering waxThe process of melting combs and cappings and removing refuse from the wax.
RobbingStealing of nectar, or honey, by bees from other colonies.
Royal jellyFood for queen larvae
Scout beesBees that search for and select a new hive site
Self-pollinationThe transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of the same plant.
SkepA straw hive without movable frames
SlumgumThe refuse from melted comb and cappings after the wax has been removed or rendered.
SmokerA device for introducing smoke into a hive.
Solar wax extractorA glass-covered insulated box used to melt wax from combs and cappings by the heat of the sun.
SpermathecaA pouch-like structure in a queen's abdomen for storing sperm
StamenThe male part of a flower where pollen-producing anther are borne
Stinger1/8'' long hollow tube with a barbed tip attached to a pocket at the end of the abdomen used to eject venom
Streptococcus plutonBacterium that causes European foulbrood.
Sugar Shake methodA means of controlling mites
Sugar SyrupA mixture of sugar and water by volume.
SuperA section of a hive used for honey storage; typically above the brood chamber
SupercedureThe taking over of an old queen by a daughter queen
SwarmThe natural division of a bee colony. A swarm of the weight of 3 kg contains 1 kg honey. The beekeeper triess to supress swarming.
Swarm CellsQueen cells developed in preparation of swarming.
TerramycinAn antibiotic used to prevent American and European foulbrood.
ThoraxBody, the middle section of an insect body to which the wings and legs are attached
Tracheal mitesA parasitic mite found in the trachea of the bee.
TransferringThe process of changing bees and combs from common boxes to movable frame hives.
Travel stainThe dark discoloration on the surface of comb honey left on the hive for some time; caused by bees tracking propolis across the surface.
Uncapping knifeA knife used to shave or remove the cappings from sealed honey comb prior to extraction; usually heated by steam or electricity.
UnitingCombining two or more colonies to form a larger colony
VarroaA parasitic mite that lives on the haemolymph of the honey bee.  
Venom allergyA condition in which a person may experience a variety of symptoms ranging from a mild rash or itchiness to anaphylactic shock. A person who is allergic and experiences abnormal symptoms should consult a physician before working bees again.
Venom hypersensitivityA condition in which a person develops a severe reaction to bee venom resulting in anaphylaxis.  A person with this condition should carry an emergency insect sting kit  (EpiPen) at all times during warm weather.
Virgin queenAn unmated queen
Wax lidA lid made by building bees to cap cells and help store the honey
Winter clusterThe arrangement of adult bees within the hive during winter
Worker beeAn unmated female bee
Worker combComb measuring about five cells to the inch, in which workers are reared and honey and pollen are stored

 

Suggestions for edits or new material for this page may be sent to: scmidstatebees@gmail.com